what do you mean by data and information ?
When we talk about the function of a program, we use words such as "add," "read," "multiply," "write," "do," and so on. The function of a program describes what it does in terms of the verbs in the programming language. The words Data and Information may look similar and many people use these words very frequently, But both have lots of differences between them.
what is data
- The dataare the nouns of the programming world: the objects that are manipulated, the information that is processed by a computer program.
- In a sense, this information is just a collection of bits that can be turned on or off.
- The computer itself needs to have data in this form. Humans, however, tend to think of information in terms of somewhat larger units such as numbers and lists, so we want at least the human-readable portions of our programs to refer to data in a way that makes sense to us.
- To separate the computer's view of data from our own view, we use data abstraction to create other views.
- Whether we use functional decomposition to produce a hierarchy of tasks or object-oriented design to produce a hierarchy of cooperating objects, data abstraction is essential.
What is Information
- Information is one of those misunderstood concepts. Yet it is at the same time one of the most used. We go to the bus station to seek information from timetables.
- Information is important, we cannot operate without it. But more than this, we are discovering that our ability to process it by increasingly sophisticated technological means is fundamentally changing the way that employees perceive their organizational environment.
- The consequences of this could be either to break down established functional controls or indeed to enhance them by becoming super-efficient.
- Much will depend upon the characteristics of the organization before implementation.
- An information system has five parts: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data. Connectivity allows computers to connect and share information, thereby greatly expanding the capability and usefulness of an information system.
- When you think of a microcomputer, perhaps you think of just the equipment itself.
- That is, you think of the monitor or the keyboard. Yet, there is more to it than that.
- The way to think about a microcomputer is as part of an information system.
- An information system has five parts:
Almost all of today’s computer systems add an additional part to the information system. This part, called connectivity, allows computers to connect and to share information.
These connections, including Internet connections, can be by telephone lines, by cable, or through the air. Connectivity allows users to greatly expand the capability and usefulness of their information systems.
In large computer systems, there are specialists who write procedures, develop software, and capture data.
In microcomputer systems, however, end users often perform these operations.
To be a competent and knowledgeable end user, you must understand the essentials of information technology (IT), including software, hardware, and data.
- People:- Are end users who use computers to make themselves more productive
- Procedures:- Specify rules or guidelines for computer operations
- Software:- Provides step-by-step instructions for computer hardware
- Hardware:- Includes keyboard, mouse, monitor, system unit, and other devices
- Data:- Consist of unprocessed facts including text, numbers, images, and sounds
Need of Information
- To gain knowledge about the surroundings, and whatever is happening in the society and universe.
- To keep the system up to date.
- To know about the rules and regulations and bye laws of society, local government, provincial and central government, associations, clients etc. as ignorance is no bliss.
- Based on above three, to arrive at a particular decision for planning current and prospective actions in process of forming, running and protecting a process or system.