Types of Data Structure

There are two types of Data Structure:

  1. Primitive Data Structure
  2. Non-primitive data Structure

Primitive Data Structure

  • Primitive data structures are basic structures and are directly operated upon by machine instructions.
  • Primitive data structures have different representations on different computers.
  • Integers, floats, character and pointers are examples of primitive data structures.
  • These data types are available in most programming languages as built in type.
    • Integer: It is a data type which allows all values without fraction part. We can use it for whole numbers.
    • Float: It is a data type which use for storing fractional numbers.
    • Character: It is a data type which is used for character values.
  • Pointer: A variable that holds memory address of another variable are called pointer.

Non primitive Data Type

  • These are more sophisticated data structures.
  • These are derived from primitive data structures.
  • The non-primitive data structures emphasize on structuring of a group of homogeneous or heterogeneous data items.
  • Examples of Non-primitive data type are Array, List, and File etc.
  • A Non-primitive data type is further divided into Linear and Non-Linear data structure
    • Array: An array is a fixed-size sequenced collection of elements of the same data type.
    • List: An ordered set containing variable number of elements is called as Lists.
    • File: A file is a collection of logically related information. It can be viewed as a large list of records consisting of various fields.


Linear data structures

  • A data structure is said to be Linear, if its elements are connected in linear fashion by means of logically or in sequence memory locations.
  • There are two ways to represent a linear data structure in memory,
    • Static memory allocation
    • Dynamic memory allocation
  • The possible operations on the linear data structure are: Traversal, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting and Merging.
  • Examples of Linear Data Structure are Stack and Queue.
  • Stack: Stack is a data structure in which insertion and deletion operations are performed at one end only.
    • The insertion operation is referred to as ‘PUSH’ and deletion operation is referred to as ‘POP’ operation.
    • Stack is also called as Last in First out (LIFO) data structure.
  • Queue: The data structure which permits the insertion at one end and Deletion at another end, known as Queue.
    • End at which deletion is occurs is known as FRONT end and another end at which insertion occurs is known as REAR end.
    • Queue is also called as First in First out (FIFO) data structure.


Nonlinear data structures

  • Nonlinear data structures are those data structure in which data items are not arranged in a sequence.
  • Examples of Non-linear Data Structure are Tree and Graph.
  • Tree: A tree can be defined as finite set of data items (nodes) in which data items are arranged in branches and sub branches according to requirement.
    • Trees represent the hierarchical relationship between various elements.
    • Tree consist of nodes connected by edge, the node represented by circle and edge lives connecting to circle.
  • Graph: Graph is a collection of nodes (Information) and connecting edges (Logical relation) between nodes.
    • A tree can be viewed as restricted graph.
    • Graphs have many types:
      • Un-directed Graph
      • Directed Graph
      • Mixed Graph
      • Multi Graph
      • Simple Graph
      • Null Graph
      • Weighted Graph