A Brief History of C++

  • The history of C++ begins with C. The reason for this is easy to understand: C++ is built upon the foundation of C. Thus, C++ is a superset of C.
  • C++ expanded and enhanced the C language to support object-oriented programming (which is described later in this module).
  • C++ also added several other improvements to the C language, including an extended set of library routines. However, much of the spirit and flavor of C++ is directly inherited from C. Therefore, to fully understand and appreciate C++, you need to understand the “how and why” behind C.
  • C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.
  • The C++ programming language was created by Bjarne Stroustrup and his team at Bell Laboratories (AT&T, USA) to help implement simulation projects in an object-oriented and efficient way. The earliest versions, which were originally referred to as “C with classes,” date back to 1980. As the name C++ implies, C++ was derived from the C programming language: ++ is the increment operator in C.

Characteristics of C++

C++ is not a purely object-oriented language but a hybrid that contains the functionality of the C programming language. This means that you have all the features that are available in C:

  • Universally usable modular programs
  • Efficient, close to the machine programming
  • Portable programs for various platforms.

Object-Oriented Programming

Central to C++ is object-oriented programming (OOP). As just explained, OOP was the impetus for the creation of C++. Because of this, it is useful to understand OOP’s basic principles before you write even a simple C++ program.

Object-oriented programming offers several major advantages to software development:

  • Reduced susceptibility to errors: an object controls access to its own data. More specifically, an object can reject erroneous access attempts.
  • Easy re-use: objects maintain themselves and can therefore be used as building blocks for other programs.
  • Low maintenance requirement: an object type can modify its own internal data representation without requiring changes to the application.

A First Simple Program

/* This is a simple C++ program. Call this file Sample.cpp. */

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;

 // A C++ program begins at main().

 int main()
 {
   cout << "C++ is power programming.";
   return 0;
 }   

Output

/* When run, the program displays the following output:*/

 C++ is power programming.