A Brief History of C++
- The history of C++ begins with C. The reason for this is easy to understand: C++ is built upon the foundation of C. Thus, C++ is a superset of C.
- C++ expanded and enhanced the C language to support object-oriented programming (which is described later in this module).
- C++ also added several other improvements to the C language, including an extended set of library routines. However, much of the spirit and flavor of C++ is directly inherited from C. Therefore, to fully understand and appreciate C++, you need to understand the “how and why” behind C.
- C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.
- The C++ programming language was created by Bjarne Stroustrup and his team at Bell Laboratories (AT&T, USA) to help implement simulation projects in an object-oriented and efficient way. The earliest versions, which were originally referred to as “C with classes,” date back to 1980. As the name C++ implies, C++ was derived from the C programming language: ++ is the increment operator in C.
Characteristics of C++
C++ is not a purely object-oriented language but a hybrid that contains the functionality of the C programming language. This means that you have all the features that are available in C:
- Universally usable modular programs
- Efficient, close to the machine programming
- Portable programs for various platforms.
- C++ is designed as a bridge between the programmer and the raw computer.
- The idea is to let the programmer organize a program in a way that he or she can easily understand.
- The compiler then translates the language into something the machine can use.
- Computer programs consist of two main parts: data and instructions. The computer imposes little or no organization on these two parts.
- After all, computers are designed to be as general as possible. The idea is for the programmer to impose his or her own organization on the computer and not the other way around.
Central to C++ is object-oriented programming (OOP). As just explained, OOP was the impetus for the creation of C++. Because of this, it is useful to understand OOP’s basic principles before you write even a simple C++ program.
Object-oriented programming offers several major advantages to software development:
- Reduced susceptibility to errors: an object controls access to its own data. More specifically, an object can reject erroneous access attempts.
- Easy re-use: objects maintain themselves and can therefore be used as building blocks for other programs.
- Low maintenance requirement: an object type can modify its own internal data representation without requiring changes to the application.
A First Simple Program
/* This is a simple C++ program. Call this file Sample.cpp. */
using namespace std;
// A C++ program begins at main().
cout << "C++ is power programming.";
/* When run, the program displays the following output:*/
C++ is power programming.